Achieving the ideal vocal compression requires a nuanced approach that maintains the singer’s dynamic expression while ensuring a controlled and polished sound. When compressing vocals, attention to detail is essential. The interplay of threshold, ratio, knee, attack and release, and gain can significantly impact the vocal’s presence and emotional impact. By carefully balancing these compressor settings, you can ensure that the vocals remain expressive and dynamic while seamlessly fitting into the mix, ultimately enhancing the overall quality of the song.
If you’re not familiar with the basics of compression, this short video explains all of the compressor settings with audio examples:
Here’s a detailed guide for setting compression parameters specifically for vocals
Compressor Settings for Vocals
The threshold is the level at which the compressor starts to take effect. When the input signal surpasses this threshold, the compressor begins reducing the output level. The threshold is set in decibels (dB), with higher values requiring a louder input to trigger compression.
- Listen closely to the vocal track and identify the loudest phrases and the quietest moments.
- Set the threshold just above the average level of the quiet parts. This allows compression to target peaks and ensure a consistent volume.
- Adjust the threshold to capture the vocal’s emotional nuances while preventing harsh peaks.
Ratio determines the amount of compression applied once the threshold is crossed. It expresses the ratio of input level change to output level change. For example, a 4:1 ratio means that for every 4 dB the input level exceeds the threshold, the output will only increase by 1 dB. Higher ratios result in more pronounced compression.
- Consider the genre and style of the song. For most vocals, start with a gentle ratio around 2:1 or 3:1 to maintain natural dynamics.
- Increase the ratio (up to 4:1 or 5:1) if you need more control over prominent peaks or if the vocal performance varies greatly in intensity.
- Prioritize a transparent ratio that subtly smoothens dynamics without causing unnatural compression artifacts.
The knee controls the onset of compression as the signal crosses the threshold. A “hard knee” results in abrupt and noticeable compression, while a “soft knee” applies compression gradually as the signal approaches the threshold. Soft knees produce smoother, less obvious compression transitions.
- Opt for a soft knee to achieve a natural and seamless compression onset. This is crucial for vocals to retain their emotive qualities.
- Use a soft knee to ensure that even slight changes in level are gracefully compressed, creating a polished and cohesive vocal sound.
4. Attack and Release:
Attack dictates how quickly the compressor responds once the signal crosses the threshold. A shorter attack time reduces initial transients but might affect the natural character of the sound. Release determines how long it takes for the compressor to stop attenuating the signal after it falls below the threshold. Faster release times provide tighter control, while slower releases retain more natural dynamics.
- Set a moderate attack time (around 10-20 ms) to capture the initial transients of the vocal. This maintains the vocal’s articulation and presence.
- Choose a release time that complements the song’s tempo and mood. A release time between 100-300 ms is often effective for vocals, striking a balance between control and natural decay.
5. Gain (Make-up Gain):
As compression reduces the dynamic range, the overall output level can become lower. The gain control compensates for this reduction by increasing the output gain. Make-up gain restores the overall loudness while retaining the intended dynamic control.
- Listen to the compressed vocal alongside the uncompressed version to ensure consistent perceived loudness.
- Adjust the make-up gain to match the overall level of the uncompressed vocal, maintaining its prominence in the mix.
How to Choose a Compressor for Vocals:
Compressors come in various types, each with its unique sonic characteristics. When selecting a compressor type for vocal processing, it’s important to consider the specific qualities you want to enhance while ensuring the vocals remain the focal point of the mix. Let’s explore how different compressor types relate to vocal processing, including examples of specific models of compressors so you can find a plugin that suits the sound you’re after!
1. Optical (Opto) Compressors: Optical compressors are a great choice for vocals when a natural and transparent sound is desired. They gently smooth out the vocal dynamics, making them well-suited for maintaining the authenticity of the vocal performance. An example of an optical compressor suitable for vocals is the Universal Audio LA-2A, known for its gentle and musical compression that adds warmth and character to vocals.
2. Tube (Vari-Mu) Compressors: Tube compressors, including the vari-mu type, introduce a pleasing warmth and harmonically rich character to vocals. This added coloration can impart a sense of vintage depth and dimension, enhancing the vocal’s presence and contributing to a classic vibe. The Manley Variable Mu is a renowned tube compressor often favored for vocals due to its lush and euphonic compression.
3. FET Compressors: FET compressors deliver a fast and punchy compression ideal for controlling vocal transients. They excel at taming unruly peaks while maintaining vocal clarity and articulation. The 1176 is a classic FET compressor that has become a staple in vocal processing, offering a powerful and energetic compression suitable for a wide range of vocal styles.
4. VCA Compressors: VCA compressors offer precise and versatile control over vocals, allowing for transparent dynamics management. They ensure that the vocal remains intelligible and well-defined within a mix. The SSL G-Master Buss Compressor is a VCA compressor model well-suited for vocals, known for its ability to enhance vocals’ presence and consistency in various genres.
In conclusion, the choice of compressor type for vocal processing is a crucial decision that shapes the vocal’s sonic character within the mix. Optical compressors like the LA-2A provide transparency, tube (vari-mu) compressors like the Manley Variable Mu add warmth, FET compressors like the 1176 deliver punch and energy, and VCA compressors like the SSL G-Master Buss Compressor provide precise and adaptable control. By selecting the appropriate compressor type based on the desired sonic qualities and the genre of the music, you can effectively enhance the vocals while ensuring they remain the centerpiece of the overall audio production.
Vocal Compression Mistakes
Too Much Compression: Don’t use too much compression, as it can make the vocals sound flat and unnatural. Keep the settings reasonable to preserve the vocal’s emotion and dynamics.
Attack and Release Settings: Make sure to set the attack and release times right. If they’re not adjusted properly, the vocals can sound strange or have unwanted pumping. Experiment with the attack and release to make sure they’re set properly!
Abusing Sidechain Compression: Be careful with sidechain compression. It can be helpful, but if you overdo it, the volume changes can sound weird. Use it subtly and make sure it complements the vocal’s natural flow.
Fix Issues First: Before compressing, address any problems like harsh sounds or background noise. Compression can make these issues worse if not dealt with beforehand.
Fit in the Mix: Always consider how the compressed vocals fit with the other instruments in the song. Don’t compress the vocals in isolation; they need to work well together with everything else.
Final Thoughts on Vocal Compression Settings
At the end of the day, experimentation and using your ears is key. Once you truly understand the settings within a compressor, you can use it as a tool to shape your vocals to fit your song! Take your time, listen to examples from other songs, and you’ll dial in a great sounding vocal that fits your mix just right! If you found this tutorial helpful, check out even more tutorials here!